Effect of Continuous-Exercise and Modification Interval-Exercise on Decreasing Malondialdehyde and Blood Lactate Levels in Non-Professional Shorinji Kempo Athletes

Keywords: continuous exercise, modification interval exercise, shorinji kempo, healthy life style

Abstract

The study purpose was to analyze the effect of continuous exercise and modification interval exercise on decreasing malondialdehyde (MDA) and blood lactate levels in non-professional Shorinji Kempo athletes.

Materials and methods. This study used a quasi-experimental method with a randomized pretest posttest-only group design. Subjects were 16 male adolescents aged 18-20, body mass index (BMI) 20-24 kg/m2, who had normal blood pressure, normal resting heart rate, and no history of chronic disease. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups: CEG (n = 8, continuous exercise group) and MIEG (n = 8, modification interval exercise group). Continuous and modification interval exercises were carried out in 30 minutes/exercise sessions, with an intensity of 75% HRmax and 75% RM, as often as 3 times/week, for one week. Measurements of resting heart rate, blood lactate and MDA levels were performed 30 minutes pre-exercise and 10 minutes post-exercise. The data analysis technique used the Paired Sample T-Test and the independent T-test with SPSS software version 21.

Results. The results showed significant differences in resting heart rate, blood lactate and MDA levels pre-exercise vs. post-exercise on CEG and MIEG (p ≤ 0.05). A difference was also observed in Delta (Δ) heart rate pre-exercise vs. post-exercise on CEG (–3.88 ± 3.36 bpm) and MIEG (–15.25 ± 3.45 bpm) (p ≤ 0.001), but no differences were observed in the Delta (Δ) blood lactate and MDA levels in both groups.

Conclusion. Based on the study results, it was shown that continuous exercise and modification interval exercise increase blood lactate and MDA levels shortly after intervention but both exercises could reduce acute stress, which was indicated by a decrease in resting heart rate.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Tri Wahyu Aga Seputra, University of Airlangga

Sports Health Science, Faculty of Medicine,
Prof. Dr. Moestopo No. 47 Street, Surabaya, East Java 60132, Indonesia
triwahyuagaseputra@gmail.com

Andri Suyoko, Surabaya State University

Faculty of Sport Science,
Lidah Wetan Street, Surabaya, East Java 60213, Indonesia 
olympus.suyoko@gmail.com

Purwo Sri Rejeki, University of Airlangga

Physiology Division, Department of Medical Physiology and Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine,
Prof. Dr. Moestopo No. 47 Street, Surabaya, East Java 60132, Indonesia 
purwo-s-r@fk.unair.ac.id

Adi Pranoto, University of Airlangga

Doctoral Program of Medical Science, Faculty of Medicine,
Prof. Dr. Moestopo No. 47 Street, Surabaya, East Java 60132, Indonesia 
adipranoto83@gmail.com

Lilik Herawati, University of Airlangga

Physiology Division, Department of Medical Physiology and Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine,
Prof. Dr. Moestopo No. 47 Street, Surabaya, East Java 60132, Indonesia 
lilik_heraw@fk.unair.ac.id

Andre Andarianto, University of Airlangga

Sports Health Science, Faculty of Medicine,
Prof. Dr. Moestopo No. 47 Street, Surabaya, East Java 60132, Indonesia 
andariantoandre@gmail.com

Ghana Firsta Yosika, Tanjungpura University

Faculty of Teacher Training and Education,
Prof. Dr. H. Hadari Nawawi Street, Pontianak, West Kalimantan 78124, Indonesia 
gfyosika@gmail.com

Nabilah Izzatunnisa, University of Airlangga

Medical Program, Faculty of Medicine,
Prof. Dr. Moestopo No. 47 Street, Surabaya, East Java 60132, Indonesia 
nabilah.izzatunnisa-2019@fk.unair.ac.id

Mohamad Khairuddin Abdul Wahab, Management and Science University

Orthopaedic & Sports Medicine, International Medical School,
40100 Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia 
khairuddin_abdwahab@msu.edu.my

References

Edwards, T., Spiteri, T., Piggott, B., Bonhotal, J., Haff, G. G., & Joyce, C. (2018). Monitoring and Managing Fatigue in Basketball. Sports (Basel, Switzerland), 6(1), 19. https://doi.org/10.3390/sports6010019

Steinbacher, P., & Eckl, P. (2015). Impact of oxidative stress on exercising skeletal muscle. Biomolecules, 5(2), 356-377. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom5020356

Stojanović, E., Stojiljković, N., Scanlan, A. T., Dalbo, V. J., Berkelmans, D. M., & Milanović, Z. (2018). The Activity Demands and Physiological Responses Encountered During Basketball Match-Play: A Systematic Review. Sports Medicine, 48(1), 111-135. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-017-0794-z

Kristie-Lee Taylor. (2012). Monitoring neuromuscular fatigue in high performance athletes.
https://doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.2.36468.55685

Liguori, I., Russo, G., Curcio, F., Bulli, G., Aran, L., Della-Morte, D., Gargiulo, G., Testa, G., Cacciatore, F., Bonaduce, D., & Abete, P. (2018). Oxidative stress, aging, and diseases. Clinical Interventions in Aging, 13, 757-772. https://doi.org/10.2147/CIA.S158513

Andarianto, A., Rejeki, P.S., Sakina, Pranoto, A., Seputra, T.W.A., Sugiharto, & Miftahussurur, M. (2022). Inflammatory markers in response to interval and continuous exercise in obese women. Comparative Exercise Physiology, 18(2), 135-142. https://doi.org/10.3920/CEP210038

Rejeki, P.S., Utami, D.M., Izzatunnisa, N., Pranoto,A., Sukarno, D.A., & Fasitasari, M. (2021). A high-fat diet decreases serum TNF-alpha and breast tumor area on benzopyrene induced mice (Mus musculus). Chiang Mai University Journal of Natural Sciences, 20(4), e2021089. https://doi.org/10.12982/CMUJNS.2021.089

Uyar, H., Yesil, E., Karadeniz, M., Orscelik, O., Ozkan, B., Ozcan, T., Cicek Yilmaz, D., & Celik, A. (2020). The Effect of High Lactate Level on Mortality in Acute Heart Failure Patients With Reduced Ejection Fraction Without Cardiogenic Shock. Cardiovascular Toxicology, 20(4), 361-369. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12012-020-09563-9

Ferrari, R. S., & Andrade, C. F. (2015). Oxidative Stress and Lung Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/590987

Firsta Yosika, G., Sukoco, P., Pranoto, A., & Purwoto, S. P. (2020). Penurunan malondialdehyde serum setelah latihan interval dan continuous di pagi hari pada perempuan obesitas. Jurnal SPORTIF : Jurnal Penelitian Pembelajaran, 6(2), 288–303. https://doi.org/10.29407/js_unpgri.vi.14289

Su, L. J., Zhang, J. H., Gomez, H., Murugan, R., Hong, X., Xu, D., Jiang, F., & Peng, Z. Y. (2019). Reactive Oxygen Species-Induced Lipid Peroxidation in Apoptosis, Autophagy, and Ferroptosis. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, 5080843. https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/5080843

Park, S.Y., & Kwak, Y.S. (2016). Impact of aerobic and anaerobic exercise training on oxidative stress and antioxidant defense in athletes. Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation, 12(2), 113-118. https://doi.org/10.12965/jer.1632598.299

Bouzid, M. A., Hammouda, O., Matran, R., Robin, S., & Fabre, C. (2015). Influence of physical fitness on antioxidant activity and malondialdehyde level in healthy older adults. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 40(6), 582-589. https://doi.org/10.1139/apnm-2014-0417

Bishop, D., Edge, J., Thomas, C., & Mercier, J. (2008). Effects of high-intensity training on muscle lactate transporters and postexercise recovery of muscle lactate and hydrogen ions in women. American journal of physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 295(6), R1991-R1998. https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpregu.00863.2007

Zhao, T., Le, S., Freitag, N., Schumann, M., Wang, X., & Cheng, S. (2021). Effect of Chronic Exercise Training on Blood Lactate Metabolism Among Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Frontiers in Physiology, 12, 652023. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2021.652023

Rahayu, T., Aprilawati, D., Mahmud, J., Purwanto, B., & Herawati L. (2019). Both Upper and Lower Extremity-Only Video Game-Based Exercise (Exergaming) Affect Blood Glucose Serum Levels and Heart Rates but Not Oxygen Saturation in Teenagers. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 19(3), 802-807. https://doi.org/10.7752/jpes.2019.s3114

Rejeki, P.S., Pranoto, A., Prasetya, R.E., & Sugiharto. (2021). Irisin serum increasing pattern is higher at moderate-intensity continuous exercise than at moderate-intensity interval exercise in obese females. Comparative Exercise Physiology, 17(5), 475-484. https://doi.org/10.3920/CEP200050

Esgalhado, M., Stockler-Pinto, M.B., de França Cardozo, L.F.M., Costa, C., Barboza, J.E. & Mafra, D. (2015). Effect of acute intradialytic strength physical exercise on oxidative stress and inflammatory responses in hemodialysis patients. Kidney Res Clin Pract, 34, 35-40. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.krcp.2015.02.004

Perez, E.H., Dawood, H., Chetty, U., Esterhuizen, T.M. and Bizaare, M. (2008). Validation of the Accutrend Lactate Meter for Hyperlactatemia Screening During Antiretroviral Therapy in a Resource-Poor Setting. International Journal of Infectious Diseases, 12(5), 553-556. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2008.03.007

Bahrainy, S., Levy, W. C., Busey, J. M., Caldwell, J. H., & Stratton, J. R. (2016). Exercise training bradycardia is largely explained by reduced intrinsic heart rate. International Journal of Cardiology, 222, 213-216. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2016.07.203

Silva, D. A. S., de Lima, T. R., & Tremblay, M. S. (2018). Association between Resting Heart Rate and Health-Related Physical Fitness in Brazilian Adolescents. BioMed Research International, 3812197. https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/3812197

Tyagi, A., & Cohen, M. (2016). Yoga and heart rate variability: A comprehensive review of the literature. International Journal of Yoga, 9(2), 97-113. https://doi.org/10.4103/0973-6131.183712

Reimers, A. K., Knapp, G., & Reimers, C. D. (2018). Effects of Exercise on the Resting Heart Rate: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Interventional Studies. Journal of Clinical Medicine, 7(12), 503. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm7120503

Ivashkiv, L. B. (2020). The hypoxia-lactate axis tempers inflammation. Nature Reviews. Immunology, 20(2), 85-86. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41577-019-0259-8

Lesmana, R., Iwasaki, T., Iizuka, Y., Amano, I., Shimokawa, N., & Koibuchi, N. (2016). The change in thyroid hormone signaling by altered training intensity in male rat skeletal muscle. Endocrine Journal, 63(8), 727-738. https://doi.org/10.1507/endocrj.EJ16-0126

Kato, M., Kurakane, S., Nishina, A., Park, J., & Chang, H. (2013). The blood lactate increase in high intensity exercise is depressed by Acanthopanax sieboldianus. Nutrients, 5(10), 4134-4144. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu5104134

Mrakic-Sposta, S., Gussoni, M., Porcelli, S., Pugliese, L., Pavei, G., Bellistri, G., Montorsi, M., Tacchini, P., & Vezzoli, A. (2015). Training effects on ROS production determined by electron paramagnetic resonance in master swimmers. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, 804794. https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/804794

Arsana, I.N., Adiputra, N., Pangkahila, J.A. and Putra-Manuaba, I.B. 2013. Garcinia Mangostana L. Rind Extract and Physical Training Reduce Oxidative Stress in Wistar Rats During Maximal Physical Activity. Indonesian Journal of Biomedical Sciences, 7(2), 63-68.

Ilyas, E.I.I., Utami, T.P., Siagian, M., Santoso, D.I.S., & Prijanti., A.R. (2017). Effect Moderate Intensity Exercise Training on Stress Oxidative Marker: Malondialdehyde and Superoxide Dismutase Acticity in Abdominal Aorta of Juvenile Rats. International Journal of Research-Granthaalayah, 5(12), 99-105. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1133607

Moflehi, D., Kok, L. Y., Tengku-Kamalden, T. F., & Amri, S. (2012). Effect of single-session aerobic exercise with varying intensities on lipid peroxidation and muscle-damage markers in sedentary males. Global Journal of Health Science, 4(4), 48-54. https://doi.org/10.5539/gjhs.v4n4p48

Huang, C-J., McAllister, M.J., Slusher, A.L., Webb, H.E., Mock, T. & Acevedo, E.O. (2015). Obesity-Related Oxidative Stress: the Impact of Physical Activity and Diet Manipulation. Sports Medicine – Open, 1(32), 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40798-015-0031-y
Published
2022-06-25
Cited
0 article
How to Cite
Seputra, T. W. A., Suyoko, A., Rejeki, P. S., Pranoto, A., Herawati, L., Andarianto, A., Yosika, G. F., Izzatunnisa, N., & Wahab, M. K. A. (2022). Effect of Continuous-Exercise and Modification Interval-Exercise on Decreasing Malondialdehyde and Blood Lactate Levels in Non-Professional Shorinji Kempo Athletes. Teorìâ Ta Metodika Fìzičnogo Vihovannâ, 22(2), 209-215. https://doi.org/10.17309/tmfv.2022.2.09
Section
Original Scientific Articles