Technological Aspects of Introduction of 8-Week Model at the Phase of Direct Training for Competitions of Highly Qualified Multi-Sport Athletes in Track-And-Field Athletics
The purpose of study was to develop and to substantiate experimentally the efficiency of the 8-week model of the stage of direct training for main competitions of highly qualified multi-sport athletes in track-and-field athletics.
Material and Methodology. 5 highly qualified multi-sport athletes having a sports qualification of the Master of Sports of Ukraine took part in the pedagogical experiment. The average age of the participants was 25.2±1.79 years. The technological basis for introduction of combined events competitions of track-and-field athletes into the requirements of the 8-week model of the phase of direct training for main competitions was constituted by: an algorithm of the individual program for training multi-sport athletes for competitions, which reflects the consistency of actions for the purpose of preparing the athletes to perform given tasks; programming of the training process, which shows the directions of performance of tasks during specific mesocycles while taking into account the feasibility of the development of components of technical and physical preparedness and types of combined events competitions in track-and-field athletics; structuring the process of straining and recovery, which determines the permissible levels and intensity of training loads during separate sessions and microcycles.
Results. We reduced the magnitude of training loads (up to 3233 min) and increased their intensity (up to 6.51 points·min-1) during the forming experiment at the phase of direct training for competitions, which allowed to achieve peak sports form and evoke additional resources in the organism of athletes.
The introduction of the developed 8-week model of the direct training stage contributed to a statistically significant improvement in the indicators of physical preparedness of the studied multi-sport athletes in running tests by 2.3-3.1%, while it made 4.4-4.9% in the tests representing speed and strength qualities and 4.5-4.9% in strength control exercises (p < 0.05). The improvement of the results of most disciplines in the range of 1.7-5.3% (p < 0.05) confirms the efficiency of the developed 8-week model of the phase of direct training.
Conclusions. Solution of specific tasks during final weeks before the main starts requires the establishment of optimum volumes of training work and load dynamics, combining training sessions with training loads of various orientation and magnitude, using rest and recovery means as a whole complex, ensuring operative and current control over the course of recovery and adaptation processes. Taking the aforementioned problems into account, we have developed an 8-week model at the phase of direct training for competitions, in which three mesocycles were determined with strictly defined tasks and corresponding training content.
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