Effectiveness of Complex Agility Training Program for Amateur Male Soccer Players

Keywords: complex training, agility, amateur male soccer players


Background. The ability to quickly change direction has been considered an important physical quality related to success in youth soccer. 

The study purpose was to investigate the training effect of a complex agility training program on amateur male soccer players.

Materials and methods. The participants were 60 amateur male football players (aged 18-22) divided into two groups and selected by using purposive random sampling. Thirty athletes aged 19.7±1.34, BMI 21.8±1.75 performed a complex training program (CTG) combined with sprint, agility or CoD, and plyometric session. While 30 participants of the control group (CG) aged 19.3 ± 1.31, BMI of 21.2 ± 1.02 followed a general football training program. In both groups, each training session lasted 120 minutes, a 30-minute period, 3 times a week, a total of 6 weeks. The Arrowhead Agility Test was scheduled at the baseline, for the 4th and 6th weeks. The mean and standard deviation of the data was calculated. The inferential statistic was repeated measure ANOVA. A Newman-Keuls post hoc test was calculated if the group x time interactions were significant (p < 0.05).

Results. After training, agility was a statistical difference within the CTG, when comparing baseline and the 6th week (p = 0.03), there were no significant changes in agility when comparing between-group. Therefore, this shows that complex training programs can improve agility in amateur male soccer players.

Conclusions. This integrated training program can be applied to amateur male soccer players. The training program should be specific and varied. It can help soccer players improve their agility that is related to overall soccer performance.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Pattarapol Thongnum, Surindra Rajabhat University

Department of Sports Science, Faculty of Education,
186, Surin-Prasat Rd., Nokmuang subdistrict, Muang district, Surin, 32000, Thailand

Yanyong Yanyong Phanpheng, Loei Rajabhat University

Sports and Exercise Science Program, Faculty of Science and Technology,
234, Loei-Chiangkhan Rd., Muang district, Loei, 42000, Thailand


Rampinini, E., Coutts, A.J., Castagna, C., Sassi, R., & Impellizzeri, F.M. (2007). Variation in top level soccer match performance. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 28(12), 1018-24. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2007-965158

Mohr, M., Krustrup, P., & Bangsbo, J. (2005). Fatigue in soccer: A brief review. Journal of Sports Sciences, 23(6), 593-599. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640410400021286

Asadi, A., Arazi, H., Young, W.B., & Villarreal, E. (2016). The effects of plyometric training on change-of-direction ability: A meta-analysis. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 11(5), 563-573. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2015-0694

Barnes, C., Archer, D.T., Hogg, B., Bush, M., & Bradley, P.S. (2014). The evolution of physical and technical performance parameters in the English Premier League. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 35(13),1095-1100. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0034-1375695

Jeffreys, I., Huggins, S., & Davies, N. (2018). Delivering a game speed-focused speed and agility development program in an English premier league soccer academy. Strength and Conditioning Journal, 40(3), 23-32. https://doi.org/10.1519/SSC.0000000000000325

Hachana, Y., Chaabene, H., Nabli, M.A., Attia, A., Moualhi, J., & Farhat, N. (2013). Test-retest reliability, criterion-related validity, and minimal detectable change of the Illinois agility test in male team sport athletes. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 27(10), 2752-9. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3182890ac3

Altmann, S., Ringhof, S., Neumann, R., Woll, A., & Rumpf, M.C. (2019). Validity and reliability of speed tests used in soccer: A systematic review. PLoS One, 14(8), e0220982. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0220982

Hammami, M., Negra, Y., Shephard, R.J., & Chelly, M.S. (2017). The effect of standard strength vs. contrast strength training on the development of sprint, agility, repeated change of direction, and jump in junior male soccer players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 31(4), 901-912. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000001815

Loturco, I., Kobal, R., Kitamura, K., Abad, C.C., Faust, B., Almeida, L., & Pereira, L.A. (2017). Mixed training methods: effects of combining resisted sprints or plyometrics with optimum power loads on sprint and agility performance in professional soccer players. Front Physiol, 8, 1034. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2017.01034

Duthie, G.M., Young, W.B., & Aitken, D.A. (2002). The acute effects of heavy loads on jump squat performance: An evaluation of the complex and contrast methods of power development. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 16(4), 530-8.

Ebben, W.P., & Blackard, D.O. (1997). Complex training with combined explosive weight training and plyometric exercises. Olympic Coach, 7(4), 11-12.

Fatouros, I.G., Jamurtas, A.Z., Leontsini, D., Taxildaris, K., Aggelousis, N., Kostopoulos, N., & Buckenmeyer, P. (2000). Evaluation of plyometric exercise training, weight training, and their combination on vertical jumping performance and leg strength. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 14(4), 470-476. https://doi.org/10.1519/00124278-200011000-00016

William, P.E. (2002). Complex Training: A Brief Review. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 1(2), 42-46.

Chu, D.A. (1996). Explosive Power and Strength: Complex Training for Maximal Results. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Ebben, W.P., & Watts, P.B. (1998). A review of combined weight training and plyometric training modes: Complex training. Strength and Conditioning, 20(5), 18-27.

Faigenbaum, A.V., O’Connell, J., La Rosa, R., & Westcott, W. (1999). Effects of strength training and complex training on upper-body strength and endurance development in children. Strength and Conditioning, 13(3), 424.

Burger, T., Boyer-Kendrick, T., & Dolny, D. (2000). Complex training compared to a combined weight training and plyometric training program. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 14(3), 360.

Ebben, W.P., Watts, P.B., Jensen, R.L., & Blackard, D.O. (2000). EMG and kinetic analysis of complex training exercise variables. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research,14(4), 451-456.

MacDonald, C.J., Lamont, H.S., & Garner, J.C. (2012). A comparison of the effects of 6 weeks of traditional resistance training, plyometric training, and complex training on measures of strength and anthropometrics. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 26(2), 422-31. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e318220df79

Docherty, D., Robbins, D., & Hodgson, M. (2004). Complex training revisited: A review of its current status as a viable training approach. Strength and Conditioning Journal, 26(6), 52-57.

Ebben, W.P. (2002). Complex training: A brief review. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 1(2), 42-46.

Zepeda, P., & Gonzalez, J. (2000). Complex training: Three weeks pre-season conditioning in division I female basketball players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 14(3), 372.

Fiorilli, G., Mitrotasios, M., Iuliano, E., Pistone, E.M., Aquino, G., & Calcagno, G. (2017). Agility and change of direction in soccer: differences according to the player ages. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 57, 1597-1604. https://doi.org/10.23736/S0022-4707.16.06562-2

Paul, D.J., Gabbett, T.J., & Nassis, G.P. (2016). Agility in team sports: testing, training and factors affecting performance. Sports Medicine, 46(3), 421-42. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-015-0428-2

Young, W.B., James, R., & Montgomery, I. (2002). Is muscle power related to running speed with changes of direction. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 42(3), 282-8.

Carey, D.P., Smith, G., Smith, T., Shepherd, J.H., Skriver, J., & Ord, L. (2001). Footedness in world soccer: an analysis of France’98. Journal of Sports Sciences, 19(11), 855-64. https://doi.org/10.1080/026404101753113804

Taylor, J.M., Macpherson, T.W., Mclaren, S.J., Spears, I., & Weston, M. (2016). Two weeks of repeated-sprint training in soccer: To turn or not to turn. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 11(8), 998-1004. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2015-0608

Azémar, G., Stein, J.F., & Ripoll, H. (2008). Effects of ocular dominance on eye-hand coordination in sporting duels. Science and Sports, 23(6), 263-277. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scispo.2008.06.004

Brughelli, M., Cronin, J., Levin, G., & Chaouachi, A. (2008). Understanding change of direction ability in sport a review of resistance training studies. Sports Medicine, 38, 1045-1063. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200838120-00007

Goral, K. (2015). Examination of agility performances of soccer players according to their playing positions. The Sport Journal, 6, 1-9. https://doi.org/10.17682/sportjournal/2015.004

Goral, K., Saygin, O., & Babayigit, I.G. (2012). Examining of reaction time of professional soccer players according to their playing positions. Selcuk University Journal of Physical Education and Sport Science, 14(1), 5-11.

Kaplan, T., Erkmen, N., & Taskin, H. (2009). The evaluation of the running speed and agility performance in professional and amateur soccer players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 23(3), 774-8. https://doi.org/ 10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181a079ae

Little, T., & Williams, A.G. (2005). Specificity of acceleration, maximum speed, and agility in professional soccer players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 19(1), 76-8.

Markovic, G., & Mikulic P. (2010). Neuro-musculoskeletal and performance adaptations to lower-extremity plyometric training. Sports Medicine, 40(10), 859-95. https://doi.org/10.2165/11318370-000000000-00000

Miller, M.G., Herniman, J.J., Ricard, M.D., Cheatham, C.C., & Michael, T.J. (2006). The effects of a 6-week plyometric training program on agility. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 5(3), 459-65.

Attene, G., Laffaye, G., Chaouachi, A., Pizzolato, F., Migliaccio, G.M., & Padulo, J. (2015). Repeated sprint ability in young basketball players: one vs. two changes of direction (Part 2). Journal of Sports Sciences 3(15), 1553-63.

Young, W., & Farrow, D.A. (2006). A review of agility: practical applications for strength and conditioning. Strength and Conditioning Journal, 28(5), 24-29. https://doi.org/10.1519/00126548-200610000-00004

Keiner, M. Sander, A., Wirth K., & Schmidtbleicher, D. (2014). Long-term strength training effects on change-of-direction sprint performance. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 28(1), 223-31. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e318295644b

Sheppard, J. M., Young, W. B., Doyle, T. L. A., Sheppard, T. A., & Newton, R. U. (2006). An evaluation of a new test of reactive agility and its relationship to sprint speed and change of direction speed. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 9(4), 342-349. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2006.05.019
0 article
How to Cite
Thongnum, P., & Phanpheng, Y. (2022). Effectiveness of Complex Agility Training Program for Amateur Male Soccer Players. Teorìâ Ta Metodika Fìzičnogo Vihovannâ, 22(2), 188-193. https://doi.org/10.17309/tmfv.2022.2.06
Original Scientific Articles