Martial Arts and Doping (the case of Sambo)

Keywords: anti-doping education, sambo athletes, doping


Background. Today, the problem of doping is the most well-known negative phenomenon in modern sport, which has become widespread in response to its active commercialization. The majority of people would agree that doping issue has moral and ethical basis, therefore the educational component of anti-doping policies is most promising in achieving the desired result – doping-free sport. 

Research purpose. The study was aimed to investigate the peculiarities of the ideas sambo athletes may have about the problem of doping in modern sport.

Materials and methods. The study involved 97 highly professional sambo athletes from 21 countries, namely Russia, Ukraine, Mexico, Japan, the USA, Canada, Cuba, Guatemala, Republic of Korea, Colombia, Paraguay, Venezuela, Peru, Brazil, Nicaragua, El Salvador, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, Honduras, Uruguay, and Costa Rica.

Results. A survey conducted among the professional sambo athletes, participants of the 2018 World Cup, made it possible to establish their knowledge about and their attitude to doping. It became known that 76.29% of the athletes were well familiar with the doping control procedure, while 23.71% were not. At the same time, 78.35% of the respondents believed that they knew their rights and responsibilities during the doping control procedure, and 21.65% of the athletes did not. 77.32% of the respondents knew the organizer of doping control and 22.68% did not.

Conclusions. The analysis of the study results and WADA statistics give grounds to state that the problem of doping in modern athletes remains an urgent problem in professional sports, including sambo.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Bogdan Mytskan, Vasyl Stefanyk Precarpathian National University

Department of Theory and Methods of Physical Culture
Shevchenko St, 57, Ivano-Frankivsk, 76018

Tetiana Mytskan, Vasyl Stefanyk Precarpathian National University

Department of Theory and Methods of Physical Culture
Shevchenko St, 57, Ivano-Frankivsk, 76018

Yuryj Oliinyk, Vasyl Stefanyk Precarpathian National University

Department of Theory and Methods of Physical Culture
Shevchenko St, 57, Ivano-Frankivsk, 76018

Georgiy Korobeynikov, National University of Ukraine on Physical Education and Sport

Department of Martial Arts,
Fizkultury St, 1, Kyiv, 03680, Ukraine

Wojciech Cynarski, University of Rzeszów

Department of Cultural Foundations of Physical Education, Tourism and Recreation
aleja Tadeusza Rejtana 16c, 35-959 Rzeszów, Poland

Stanisław Zaborniak, University of Rzeszów

Department of Humanities and Social Sciences
aleja Tadeusza Rejtana 16c, 35-959 Rzeszów, Poland

Carlos Gutiérrez-García, University of León

Department of Physical and Sports Education
Campus de Vegazana S/N, 24071 León, Spain


Morente-Sanchez, J., & Zabala, M. (2013). Doping in sport: a review of elite athletes’ attitudes, beliefs, and knowledge. Sports Medicine, 43(6), 395-411.

Wagner, U., & Petersen, K. (2014). The IOC and the doping issue: an institutional discursive approach to organizational identity construction. Sport management review, 17(2), 160-173. 10.1016/j.smr.2013.05.001

Geeraets Vincent (2018). Ideology, Doping and the Spirit of Sport. Sport, Ethics and Philosoph, 12(3), 255-271. 10.1080/17511321.2017.1351483

FIAS (2018). Obtained provisional recognition of the International Olympic Committee [online]. Available at:

Barabanova, V.B. (2010). Doping in sport as a social problem. Advances in current natural sciences, 11, 176-178.

Platonov, V.N. (2016). Doping in olympic sport: signs of the crisis and ways to overcome it. Pedagogics, psychology, medical-biological problems of physical training and sports, 6, 53-86. https://doi:10.15561/18189172.2016.0608

Halabchi, F. (2009). Doping in Combat Sports, [In:] Combat Sports Medicine, 1st edition, 1-18.

Mottram, D.R. (2018). The evolution of doping and anti-doping in sport [In:] Drugs in sport, London: Routledge, 43-60.

WADA (2010). A brief history of anti-doping. [online].. Available at:

WADA (2015). World Anti-doping Code. Montreal: World Anti-Doping Agency.

Bloodworth, A.J., Petróczi, A.A., Bailey, R.R., Pearce, G.G., & McNamee, M.J. (2012). Doping and supplementation: The attitudes of talented young athletes. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 22(2), 293-301.

Backhouse, S.H., & McKenna, J. (2011). Doping in sport: a review of medical practitioners’ knowledge, attitudes and beliefs. Int J Drug Policy, 22(3),198-202. 10.1016/j.drugpo.2011.03.002.19

Oliynyk, Yu. O., Mytskan, B.M., & Soldatenkov, P.M. (2014). Anti-doping education in the system of training future specialists in physical education and sports in Ukraine and Russia. Bulletin of the Precarpathian University. Physical Education, 19, 56-64.

Van Bottenburg Maarten, Geeraert Arnout, & de Hon Olivier (2021). The World Anti-Doping Agency: Guardian of Elite Sport’s Credibility, Guardians of Public Value, 185-210.

Johnson, M.B. (2012). A systemic social-cognitive perspective on doping. Psychol Sport Exerc., 3(13), 317-323.

Ivanova, V., Miller, J.H., Rabin, O., Squirrell, A., & Westwood, S. (2012). Harmonization of anti-doping rules in a global context (World Anti-Doping Agency-laboratory accreditation perspective). Bioanalysis, 4(13), 1603-1611.

Faria, M. (2018). The glittering darkness of fraud and corruption of sports. International Journal of Physical Education, Sports and Health, 5(3),160-170.

McNamee Michael, J. (2012). The spirit of sport and the medicalisation of anti-doping: Empirical and normative ethics. Asian Bioethics Review, 4(4), 374-392.

Coleman, J.E., & Levine, J.M. (2011). The burden of proof in endogenous substance cases: A masking agent for junk science, [in:] M.McNamee, V. Moller [ed.]. Doping and anti-doping policy in sport, London: Routledge, 27-49.

Loland Sigmund, & Hoppeler Hans (2012). Justifying anti-doping: The fair opportunity principle and the biology of performance enhancement. European Journal of Sport Science, 12(4), 347-353. 10.1080/17461391.2011.566374

Petróczi, A., Norman, P., Brueckner, S. (2017). Can We Better Integrate the Role of Anti-Doping in Sports and Society? A Psychological Approach to Contemporary Value-Based Prevention. Med Sport Sci., 62, 160-176. 10.1159/000460726

Drozd, М., & Drozd, S. (1998). W sprawie dopingu [About doping]. Przcglad Naukowy Instytutu Wychowania Fizycznego і Zdrowotnego WSP, Rzeszow, 2(2), 51-55.

Kornbeck, J. (2013). The naked spirit of sport: A framework for revisiting the system of bans and justifications in the World Anti-Doping Code. Sport, Ethics and Philosophy, 7(3), 313-330.

Thomas, L. (2016). Drug testing in the NFL: efficacy or hypocrisy? [online]., Available at:

Motoarca, I.R. (2015). Kinds of fair play and regulation enforcement: Toward a better sports ethic. Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 42(1), 121-136.
0 article
How to Cite
Mytskan, B., Mytskan, T., Oliinyk, Y., Korobeynikov, G., Cynarski, W., Zaborniak, S., & Gutiérrez-García, C. (2022). Martial Arts and Doping (the case of Sambo). Teorìâ Ta Metodika Fìzičnogo Vihovannâ, 22(2), 276-281.
Original Scientific Articles