Gender Differences in Absolute and Relative Values of Hand Dynamometer Test with 9 and 10-Year Old Children From the Skopje Region in R.N. Macedonia

Keywords: handgrip strength, dynamometer, nutrition, children, early phase of puberty


Background. Handgrip strength test is applied both to adults and children to indicate muscular fitness as well as the nutritional and health status. It differs in adults and adolescents depending on the gender. However, it is not clear whether a difference exists also in children at 9 to 10 years of age, and what are the factors that influence it. The goal of the research was to determine the absolute and relative values of the hand dynamometer test with healthy Macedonian boys and girls aged 9 and 10 from the Skopje region as well as to determine the factors that affect the handgrip strength at that age.

Materials and methods. The research was conducted on a sample of 775 children (boys n = 386; girls n = 389), whereby the following characteristics were measured: handgrip strength, weight, height, body fat percentage, muscle mass percentage and the body mass index (BMI) was calculated. The maximum handgrip strength was measured with a digital Takei TKK 5101 dynamometer. 

Results. The research found that there are statistically significant differences in the absolute values obtained in the hand dynamometer test between healthy boys and girls in Macedonia at 9 and 10 years of age. On the basis of the results obtained from the research, one can conclude that the results of the hand dynamometer test are affected by age, gender and body composition. 

Conclusion. Based on the increasing predominance of children’s obesity, the present study can provide clinicians and researchers with an insight how body composition influences muscular fitness, and can serve policy-makers to develop gender-specific strategies about body-weight management and promotion of muscular performance among children and adolescents.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Abdulla Elezi, University of Pristina

Faculty of Physical Education and Sport,
Industrial Zone, Pristina, 10000, Kosovo

Gresa Elezi, American Hospital, Pristina

Industrial Zone, Pristina, 10000, Kosovo

Seryozha Gontarev, Ss. Cyril and Methodius University of Skopje

Faculty of Physical Education, Sport and Health, 
Dimce Mircev, 3, Skopje, 1000, Republic of North Macedonia

Georgi Georgiev, Ss. Cyril and Methodius University of Skopje

Faculty of Physical Education, Sport and Health, Dimce Mircev, 3, Skopje, 1000, Republic of North Macedonia


Ortega, F. B., Ruiz, J. R., Castillo, M. J., & Sjöström, M. (2008). Physical fitness in childhood and adolescence: a powerful marker of health. International journal of obesity, 32(1), 1-11.

Artero, E. G., Ruiz, J. R., Ortega, F. B., España-Romero, V., Vicente-Rodríguez, G., Molnar, D., ... & HELENA Study Group. (2011). Muscular and cardiorespiratory fitness are independently associated with metabolic risk in adolescents: the HELENA study. Pediatric diabetes, 12(8), 704-712.

Cooper, R., Kuh, D., Cooper, C., Gale, C. R., Lawlor, D. A., Matthews, F., ... & FALCon and HALCyon Study Teams. (2011). Objective measures of physical capability and subsequent health: a systematic review. Age and ageing, 40(1), 14-23.

Ortega, F. B., Silventoinen, K., Tynelius, P., & Rasmussen, F. (2012). Muscular strength in male adolescents and premature death: cohort study of one million participants. BMJ, 345, e7279.

Benson, A. C., Torode, M. E., & Fiatarone Singh, M. A. (2006). Muscular strength and cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with higher insulin sensitivity in children and adolescents. International Journal of Pediatric Obesity, 1(4), 222-231.

Sabin, M. A., Magnussen, C. G., Juonala, M., Shield, J. P., Kähönen, M., Lehtimäki, T., ... & Raitakari, O. T. (2015). Insulin and BMI as predictors of adult type 2 diabetes mellitus. Pediatrics, 135(1), e144-e151.

Wolfe, R. R. (2006). The underappreciated role of muscle in health and disease. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 84(3), 475-482.

Schlüssel, M. M., Anjos, L. A. D., & Kac, G. (2008). Hand grip strength test and its use in nutritional assessment. Revista de Nutrição, 21(2), 233-235.

Valtueña, J., Gracia-Marco, L., Huybrechts, I., Breidenassel, C., Ferrari, M., Gottrand, F., ... & Kafatos, A. (2013). Cardiorespiratory fitness in males, and upper limbs muscular strength in females, are positively related with 25-hydroxyvitamin D plasma concentrations in European adolescents: the HELENA study. QJM: An International Journal of Medicine, 106(9), 809-821.

Bohannon, R. W. (2001). Dynamometer measurements of hand-grip strength predict multiple outcomes. Perceptual and motor skills, 93(2), 323-328.

Snow-Harter, C., Bouxsein, M., Lewis, B., Charette, S., Weinstein, P., & Marcus, R. (1990). Muscle strength as a predictor of bone mineral density in young women. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, 5(6), 589-595.

Lamprinoudi, T., Mazza, E., Ferro, Y., Brogneri, S., Foti, D., Gulletta, E., ... & Montalcini, T. (2014). The link between nutritional parameters and bone mineral density in women: results of a screening programme for osteoporosis. Journal of translational medicine, 12(1), 1-5.

Webb, A. R., Newman, L. A., Taylor, M., & Keogh, J. B. (1989). Hand grip dynamometry as a predictor of postoperative complications reappraisal using age standardized grip strengths. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, 13(1), 30-33.

Sasaki, H., Kasagi, F., Yamada, M., & Fujita, S. (2007). Grip strength predicts cause-specific mortality in middle-aged and elderly persons. The American journal of medicine, 120(4), 337-342.

Leong, D. P., Teo, K. K., Rangarajan, S., Lopez-Jaramillo, P., Avezum Jr, A., Orlandini, A., ... & Yusuf, S. (2015). Prognostic value of grip strength: findings from the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study. The Lancet, 386(9990), 266-273.

Gontarev, S., Kalac, R., Velickovska, L. A., & Zivkovic, V. (2018). Physical fitness reference standards in Macedonian children and adolescents: the MAKFIT study. Nutrición hospitalaria: Organo oficial de la Sociedad española de nutrición parenteral y enteral, 35(6), 1275-1286.

De Miguel-Etayo, P., Gracia-Marco, L., Ortega, F. B., Intemann, T., Foraita, R., Lissner, L., ... & Moreno, L. A. (2014). Physical fitness reference standards in European children: the IDEFICS study. International journal of Obesity, 38(2), S57-S66.

Ortega, F. B., Artero, E. G., Ruiz, J. R., España-Romero, V., Jiménez-Pavón, D., Vicente-Rodríguez, G., ... & Castillo, M. J. (2011). Physical fitness levels among European adolescents: the HELENA study. British journal of sports medicine, 45(1), 20-29.

Gulías-González, R., Sánchez-López, M., Olivas-Bravo, Á., Solera-Martínez, M., & Martínez-Vizcaíno, V. (2014). Physical fitness in Spanish schoolchildren aged 6–12 years: reference values of the battery EUROFIT and associated cardiovascular risk. Journal of School Health, 84(10), 625-635.

Semproli, S., Brasili, P., Toselli, S., Ventrella, A. R., Jürimäe, J., & Jürimäe, T. (2007). The influence of anthropometric characteristics to the handgrip and pinch strength in 6-10-year old children. Anthropologischer Anzeiger, 293-302.

Sartorio, A., Lafortuna, C. L., Pogliaghi, S., & Trecate, L. (2002). The impact of gender, body dimension and body composition on hand-grip strength in healthy children. Journal of endocrinological investigation, 25(5), 431-435.

Loomba-Albrecht, L. A., & Styne, D. M. (2009). Effect of puberty on body composition. Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity, 16(1), 10-15.

Weiner, J. S., & Lourie, J. A. (1981). General medical examinations, Techniques. Practical Human Biology.

ACSM (American College of Sports Medicine) (2005) Health-Related physical Fitness As sessment Manual. Balti more: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.

Heyward, V.H. (2006) Advanced fitness as sessment and exercise prescription 5-th edition. Champaign: Human Kinetics Publishers.

Haidar, S. G., Kumar, D., Bassi, R. S., & Deshmukh, S. C. (2004). Average versus maximum grip strength: which is more consistent?. Journal of Hand Surgery, 29(1), 82-84.

Vicente-Rodríguez, G., Urzanqui, A., Mesana, M. I., Ortega, F. B., Ruiz, J. R., Ezquerra, J., ... & Moreno, L. A. (2008). Physical fitness effect on bone mass is mediated by the independent association between lean mass and bone mass through adolescence: a cross-sectional study. Journal of bone and mineral metabolism, 26(3), 288-294.

Flood, A., Chung, A., Parker, H., Kearns, V., & O’Sullivan, T. A. (2014). The use of hand grip strength as a predictor of nutrition status in hospital patients. Clinical nutrition, 33(1), 106-114.

White, J. V., Guenter, P., Jensen, G., Malone, A., & Schofield, M. (2012). Consensus statement: Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics and ASPEN Characteristics recommended for the identification and documentation of adult malnutrition. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr, 36, 275-383.

Wiles, C. M., Karni, Y., & Nicklin, J. (1990). Laboratory testing of muscle function in the management of neuromuscular disease. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 53(5), 384-387.

Tremblay, M. S., Shields, M., Laviolette, M., Craig, C. L., Janssen, I., & Gorber, S. C. (2010). Fitness of Canadian children and youth: results from the 2007-2009 Canadian Health Measures Survey. Health reports, 21(1), 7.

Chatterjee, S., & Chowdhuri, B.J. (1991). Comparison of grip strength and isometric endurance between the right and left hands of men and their relationship with age and other physical parameters. Journal of human ergology, 20(1), 41-50.

Jürimäe, T., Hurbo, T., & Jürimäe, J. (2009). Relationship of handgrip strength with anthropometric and body composition variables in prepubertal children. Homo, 60(3), 225-238.

Montalcini, T., Ferro, Y., Salvati, M. A., Romeo, S., Miniero, R., & Pujia, A. (2016). Gender difference in handgrip strength of Italian children aged 9 to 10 years. Italian Journal of Pediatrics, 42(1), 16.

Neu, C. M., Rauch, F., Rittweger, J., Manz, F., & Schoenau, E. (2002). Influence of puberty on muscle development at the forearm. American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism, 283(1), E103-E107.

Rudolph, M., Kroll, F., Beery, M., Marinda, E., Sobiecki, J. F., Douglas, G., & Orr, G. (2013). A pilot study assessing the impact of a fortified supplementary food on the health and well-being of crèche children and adult TB patients in South Africa. PloS one, 8(1), e55544.

Kulkarni, B., Hills, A. P., & Byrne, N. M. (2014). Nutritional influences over the life course on lean body mass of individuals in developing countries. Nutrition reviews, 72(3), 190-204.

Battjes-Fries, M. C., Haveman-Nies, A., Renes, R. J., Meester, H. J., & van’t Veer, P. (2015). Effect of the Dutch school-based education programme ‘Taste Lessons’ on behavioural determinants of taste acceptance and healthy eating: a quasi-experimental study. Public Health Nutrition, 18(12), 2231-2241.
0 article
How to Cite
Elezi, A., Elezi, G., Gontarev, S., & Georgiev, G. (2021). Gender Differences in Absolute and Relative Values of Hand Dynamometer Test with 9 and 10-Year Old Children From the Skopje Region in R.N. Macedonia. Teorìâ Ta Metodika Fìzičnogo Vihovannâ, 21(2), 113-120.