Teorìâ ta Metodika Fìzičnogo Vihovannâ 2022-03-26T18:58:31+02:00 Oleg Khudolii Open Journal Systems <p><img src="/public/site/images/tmfv/obl-engl-min-21(4)-L1.png"><br>Scientific-methodological journal.&nbsp;</p> <p>Professional journal in physical education and sports.</p> <p>The journal publishes manuscripts that focus on:</p> <ul> <li class="show">movement training theory and methodology;</li> <li class="show">physical education of children and teenagers;</li> <li class="show">sports training of children and youth;</li> <li class="show">physical training at school;</li> <li class="show">physical training in prevention and treatment of children’s and teenagers’ illnesses;</li> <li class="show">theory and methodology of professional training of a physical training teacher;</li> <li class="show">legal framework of physical training in Ukraine.</li> </ul> <p>&nbsp;The journal’s regular sections are:</p> <ul> <li class="show">physical training history;</li> <li class="show">physical training education;</li> <li class="show">fundamentals of sports training;</li> <li class="show">fundamentals of youth sports;</li> <li class="show">fundamentals of physical exercise technique;</li> <li class="show">physical training at school;</li> <li class="show">physical education of various population groups;</li> <li class="show">information and computer technologies in physical education and sports;</li> <li class="show">legal framework of physical training in Ukraine.</li> </ul> <p>4 issues per year</p> <p>State registration certificate: series KV No. 6255 as of June 21, 2002.</p> <p>The journal was founded in 2000.</p> <p>p-ISSN 1993-7989, e-ISSN 1993-7997</p> The Effectiveness of E-Learning-Based Volleyball Service Video Media on Students Affected by Covid-19 at Faculty of Sports Science, Universitas Negeri Medan 2022-03-25T21:16:30+02:00 Samsuddin Siregar Indra Kasih Herli Pardilla <p><strong>The study purpose.</strong> The online learning system, media, and resources used by lecturers to achieve volleyball learning goals are known to be not optimal. This study aimed to develop an e-learning video media that can be used by students as a learning resource to learn the material for upper serve, jump serve, and floating serve in volleyball games.</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods.</strong> The research subjects were students who were divided into treatment groups and control groups where each group consisted of 40 people. The research method used was an experimental method with a before-after research design (one-group pretest and posttest design). A rubric test is an instrument used to measure the effectiveness of video media in improving student service skills.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> The results of the research and data analysis found that the service skills (upper serve, jump serve, and floating serve) in the treatment group with the help of e-learning video media were better than in the control group who did not receive e-learning.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> The treatment group has better service skills than the control group. During the Covid-19 pandemic, it is recommended for lecturers to use e-learning video media in teaching volleyball service material.</p> 2022-03-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Methodology for Determining the Speed‑Power Capabilities of Basketball Players 2022-03-25T21:16:30+02:00 Viktor Koryahin Halyna Hrebinka Volodymyr Prystynskyi Tetyana Prystynska <p><strong>The study objective</strong> is to develop a methodology for determining the jump height and jumping endurance in basketball players of various gaming functions using modern nanotechnology and&nbsp;microprocessor systems,&nbsp;in particular smartphones, personal computers, etc.</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods.</strong>&nbsp;The study used a method for determining jump height&nbsp;and jumping endurance using capacitive sensor devices based on a&nbsp;combination of modern nanotechnology and microprocessor systems, in particular smartphones, personal computers.</p> <p><strong>Results. </strong>The study showed that the use of modern nanotechnology&nbsp;to monitor the jump height and jumping endurance allows you to study these indicators with high accuracy, which is very important in scientific research. The study showed that the absolute height of the jump in center players is 328.1 ± 7.88 cm, in attackers – 324.1 ± 6.62 cm, in defenders – 314.4 ± 8.65 cm. The relative height of the jump in defenders is 57.7 ± 6.86 cm, which is on average 8.2 cm more than in center players, and 5.3 cm more than in attackers (p &lt; 0.001 and p &lt; 0.02, respectively).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong>&nbsp;The use of modern nanotechnology and microprocessor systems to determine the parameters of jump height and jumping endurance allows you to determine these parameters with high accuracy.&nbsp;The use of modern, accurate nanotechnology&nbsp;measurement and calculation of jump height and jumping endurance indicators using graphic data analysis provided a complete description and degree of development of various “jumping” qualities of basketball players.</p> <p>Studies have shown that the jump height and jumping endurance in basketball players of different roles (defenders, attackers, and center) differ with a high degree of reliability.</p> 2022-03-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Effect of Comprehensive Teaching Learning-Based Training on Social Skills and Attitudes 2022-03-25T21:16:30+02:00 Erwin Setyo Kriswanto Andry Akhiruyanto Sulistiyono Sulistiyono Nawan Primasoni Fatkurahman Arjuna Nurhadi Santoso Himawan Putranta <p><strong>The study purpose</strong> was to determine the effect of a comprehensive teaching learning-based training model on the skills and social attitudes of young football players.</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods.</strong> This is an experimental study with a sample of 36 male football athletes aged 10-12 years. Samples are players who registered and trained at the Real Madrid Foundation Yogyakarta football school. Samples attended training with a frequency of 3x/week with a minimum attendance of 80% in 20 weeks and were selected to participate in district or provincial football competitions. The instrument used for measuring football technical skills was the David Lee test, and for social attitudes the Prosocial and Antisocial Behavior Sport Scale (PABSS) questionnaire was used. The data analysis technique was the paired sample t-test.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> The results showed that the comprehensive teaching learning-based training model affected the skills and social attitudes of young football players. In the 10 year age group, there was an influence on skills of 1.497 and social behavior of 2.750, which means that it is influential. In the 11 year age group, it was found that the effect on skills was 0.506 and social behavior was -2.812, which means that there was no effect on social behavior. In the 12 year age group, it was found that the effect on skills was 0.19 and social behavior was 1.148, which meant that it affected.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> Young football coaches can make a comprehensive teaching learning-based training model as a choice of strategies in the development of performance skills and personality.</p> 2022-03-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Structure of General Physical Fitness of Girls – Future Officers During Training at the Military Academy 2022-03-25T21:16:30+02:00 Victor Sliusarchuk Gennadii Iedynak Oksana Blavt Rostyslav Chaplinskyі Lesia Galamanzhuk Vadim Stasyuk Olena Klius <p><strong>The study objective</strong> consist in studied the structure, which marked the change in the general physical fitness of the same girls throughout the period of their studies at the military academy.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods</strong>. The study involved 108 girls, their age at the beginning of the study was 17-18 years. Taking into account the recommendations of experts, a battery of tests was used to assess the development of basic motor skills. Testing took place at the beginning of each new school year.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>. Received evidence of this. During the training at the military academy, the general physical fitness of girls changes every year, which has its own structure with features that depend on the year of study. The first such structure is determined by static strength endurance, flexibility, speed qualities, and muscular force, during the second year of study – static strength endurance, aerobic endurance, and coordination in cyclic locomotions, during the third – flexibility, explosive force, and aerobic endurance, during the fourth – muscle strength, speed, and aerobic endurance.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions. </strong>Establishing the structure of physical fitness of girls – future officers during each year of study at the military academy is an important task. To improve the general physical fitness of girls – future officers, it is advisable to design the content of the program, taking into account the results. The program should focus on the development of motor skills that form a certain structure of change in the general physical fitness of girls in a given year of study.</p> 2022-03-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Limited Implementation of the FIFA 11+ Shoulder Injury Prevention Program (FIFA 11+ S) Among Professional Soccer Goalkeepers Globally 2022-03-25T21:16:30+02:00 Wesam Saleh A. Al Attar Sameer Yamani Hussain Ghulam Eyad Alharbi Ross H. Sanders <p><strong>Purpose.</strong> Soccer is one of the most popular sports worldwide. Soccer goalkeepers are more likely than outfield players to injure their upper extremities, particularly their shoulders. The Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) 11+ Shoulder Injury Prevention Program (FIFA 11+S) was developed to prevent upper extremity injuries. The aim of this study was to assess soccer goalkeepers’ and goalkeepers’ coaches’ awareness, implementation, and opinion of FIFA 11+S effectiveness in reducing upper extremity injuries.</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods.</strong> A self-administered questionnaire was developed and distributed to worldwide professional soccer goalkeepers and goalkeepers’ coaches. The survey was available in 10 different languages. The questionnaire consisted of questions covering the awareness, implementation, and goalkeepers’ and goalkeepers’ coaches’ opinion of the FIFA 11+ Shoulder Injury Prevention Program in reducing upper extremity injuries. Questions development was guided by several authors expert in sport medicine and injury prevention programs.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> A total of 722 goalkeepers and goalkeepers’ coaches completed the survey. The vast majority (97.60%) of the participants were goalkeepers. Only 204 (28.25%) participants were aware of FIFA 11+S, and 155 (21.46 %) were implementing FIFA 11+S in their current practice. Participants who implemented FIFA 11+S reported a positive opinion about the program efficacy, with a score of 8.19 ± 0.93 out of 10.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p><strong>Conclusions. </strong>This study is the first to investigate goalkeepers’ and coaches’ awareness, implementation, and opinion of the effectiveness of the FIFA 11+S program in reducing shoulder injuries globally. Overall, the awareness rate was exceptionally low, but the implementation level among aware participants was good. Goalkeepers and coaches attained a positive score regarding the FIFA 11+S effectiveness in reducing shoulder injuries. Further efforts and research are needed to increase the awareness and usage of the FIFA 11+S program.</p> 2022-03-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Vinyasa Training on Dynamic Body Balance of Male National Level Yoga Players 2022-03-25T21:16:30+02:00 Vikas Singh Tenzing Norzom Bhutia Mahendra Kumar Singh Nibu R. Krishna <p><strong>Background. </strong>Body balance is among the most important aspects for achieving athletic excellence in competitive sports. Body balance helps in the development of proper body posture control, which supports high performance and skill demonstration across all sports. Body balance is known to be positively&nbsp;correlated to competitive athletic performance. In sports, good balance implies moving more efficiently and with better body control. Yoga is one of the means of improving body balance, and it has also been linked&nbsp;to enhancing athletic performance. Vinyasa yoga is a powerful method that targets the entire body. Navigate challenging poses to improve your strength, flexibility, and balance, especially if you want to target muscle groups that aren’t used in your preferred sport.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p><strong>The focus of this study.</strong> To analyse the efficacy of a 6-week Vinyasa Yoga Training Programme (VYTP) in improving dynamic body balance of male national level yoga players.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p><strong>Materials and methods</strong>. Twenty male national level yoga players (18-25 years) from the Lakshmibai National Institute of Physical Education, Gwalior, India, participated in the study. The participants were then randomly allocated into two groups, one experimental (Vinyasa) and the other control. The Sensbalance machine was used to measure the dynamic body balance.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> ANCOVA indicates a significant difference in the selected variable of dynamic body balance in the experimental group compared to the control group. When compared to the control group which did not receive any training, the post-test found that the experimental yoga group significantly improved in dynamic body balance.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> VTYP was found to be helpful in enhancing dynamic body balance. In the current study after six weeks of vinyasa training it was observed that the male national yoga players had a substantial difference in dynamic body balance compared to the control group.</p> 2022-03-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Cardiorespiratory Fitness Cut-Points Related to Body Adiposity Parameters in Macedonian Children 2022-03-25T21:16:30+02:00 Abdulla Elezi Valon Kadriu Gresa Elezi Georgi Georgiev Seryozha Gontarev <p><strong>Background and Objectives:</strong> There is a shortage of criteria referent standards for tests of logistic application meant to estimate the cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) of children and adolescents in the Republic of North Macedonia. The goal of the research was twofold: (1) To identify the ability of CRF estimated by the 20-m shuttle-run test (20mSRT) to discriminate between “healthy” and “unhealthy” phenotypes (by adiposity measures such as WC and WHR) in children; (2) To determine the correlation between obesity and relatively maximum oxygen consumption (VO<sub>2</sub> peak) tested on a relatively large respondents’ sample of Macedonian children. The research was conducted on a sample of 1,863 respondents, 957 (51.4%) of whom were boys, and 906 (48.6%) were girls at the age of 7 to 10 years. All of them were from 19 primary schools in the central and eastern parts of the Republic of North Macedonia.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> The waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) were used to identify body adiposity markers. CRF was measured using the 20mSRT (VO<sub>2</sub> peak). Receiver operating characteristic curves and logistic regression were applied in order to establish the discriminative power of CRF in anticipating the parameters of body adiposity markers.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> With regard both to the boys and girls, VO<sub>2</sub> peak showed considerable predictive power of identifying the body adiposity (area under the curve [AUC] &gt; 0.66). In boys, when considering the full sample (7-10 years), the best cut-point for VO<sub>2</sub> peak to detect body fat by WC were 48.8 to mL•kg<sup>−1</sup>•min<sup>−1</sup> and WHtR were 47.4 to mL•kg<sup>−1</sup>•min<sup>−1</sup>. For girls, when considering the full sample (7-10 years), the best cut-point to detect body fat by WC were 47.4 to mL•kg<sup>−1</sup>•min<sup>−1</sup>&nbsp;and WHtR were 47.1 to mL•kg<sup>−1</sup>•min<sup>−1</sup>.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> According to these cut-points, adolescents with low CRF were more likely to be obese either by WC or WHtR. The border values (cut-points) of CRF can be used as quantitative markers of children of healthier body characteristics from the Republic of North Macedonia.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> 2022-03-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Does the Athletes’ Leg Muscle Power Increase After the Tabata Aquatic Program? 2022-03-25T21:16:30+02:00 Ruslan Abdul Gani Irfan Zinat Achmad Rekha Ratri Julianti Edi Setiawan Zsolt Németh Abdurrohman Muzakki Novi Yanti Habibie Habibie <p><strong>The study purpose.</strong> This study aims to evaluate the effect of the Tabata aquatic training method program in increasing the muscle power of beginner level athletes.</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods.</strong> The researcher used a mixed method in this study. There were twenty swimming athletes (n&nbsp;= 20, age: 14.40 ± 1.18 years, height: 169.20 ± 3.18 cm, weight: 62.20 ± 2.26 kg) who agreed to participate in this study and were divided into two groups. The treatment group (n = 10) received the Tabata aquatic program and the control group (n = 10) swam every day without participating in any physical activity. The Tabata aquatic program was carried out for 9 weeks with a frequency of 3 times a week. After implementing the Tabata aquatic program, 10 athletes were interviewed. This study applied a quantitative research instrument, including squat jumps, and a qualitative research instrument, including individual in-depth interviews lasting for 30 minutes each. Analysis of quantitative data using IBM SPSS version 25.0 and qualitative data using thematic analysis was applied.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> Quantitative study results showed that there was a significant increase in the squat jumps test (leg muscle power) in the treatment group and vice versa, there was no increase in the control group. However, in qualitative research results, most participants mentioned that the Tabata aquatic program is a fun training method and has a positive effect.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> After carrying out the Tabata aquatic program for 9 weeks, we confirmed that this training method has a great impact on improving athletes’ leg muscle power in swimming.</p> 2022-03-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Effect of Training Based on Part And Whole Combinations on Smash Techniques Improvement in Volleyball Sports for 11-12 Year Old Athletes 2022-03-25T21:16:30+02:00 Danang Wicaksono Wicaksono Furqon Hidayatullah Agus Kristiyanto Sapta Kunta Purnama <p><strong>Objective.</strong> This study aims to examine the effectiveness of the part and whole combination-based smash training model on smash techniques in volleyball athletes aged 11-12 years.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p><strong>Materials and method.</strong> This study used an experimental field testing method, with a pretest-posttest control group design approach. The participants were 52 male volleyball athletes aged 11-12 years and had an average weight and height of ±36.02 kg and ±144.63cm. The instrument used to measure the smash technique was a volleyball skill test.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> The results of the descriptive analysis showed differences in the mean and standard deviation of the conventional group and the experimental group. The average value of the conventional group is 75.562 with a standard deviation of 8.7956, while the average value of the experimental group is 87.492 with a standard deviation of 1.9343. Hypothesis testing conducted using Mann-Whitney analysis found that the value of Asymp sig (2-tailed) was 0.000 &lt;0.05, which indicates that the hypothesis is accepted.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> Knowing the descriptive results and hypothesis testing, it is concluded that the experimental group experienced a significant improvement and was better than the conventional group. Based on the category of posttest average result assessment, the experimental group was included in the very good category. In other words, the experimental group was very competent. On this basis, this research can be used as a reference in training smash techniques for volleyball athletes at the beginner age.</p> 2022-03-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Improvement of Qualitative and Quantitative Aspects of the Sports Performance of Young Players Through High Intensity Interval Training 2022-03-25T21:16:30+02:00 Tiziana D’Isanto Felice Di Domenico Italo Sannicandro Francesca D’Elia <p><strong>Objective.</strong> One of the most widely used training methodologies in football is high intensity interval training (HIIT), which aims to improve performance through training sessions characterised by exercises that involve alternating percentage load intensity. In the literature, although there are studies that demonstrate the effectiveness of HIIT in improving quantitative aspects, i.e. different expressions of strength, there are not as many studies that attest to the same effectiveness in improving qualitative components, i.e. elements related to the precision of specific football gestures.</p> <p><strong>The study purpose</strong> was to verify whether the application of a specific HIIT protocol for football over a given period of time can be equally effective in simultaneously improving the quantitative and precision components.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p><strong>Materials and methods. </strong>The sample analysed consisted of 16 movement players from the ASD Nuova Antoniana sports club, aged between 14 and 15 years. The sample was subjected to a mesocycle of training lasting 8 weeks characterised by the HIIT methodology. Before and after this period, data were collected by means of a battery of tests aimed at assessing rapid, explosive, fast and resistant strength, and passing and shooting skills: the parameters relating to expressions of strength were assessed by means of quantitative tests specific to each parameter; passing and shooting skills were assessed by means of accuracy score tests (from 0 to 4 according to accuracy).</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> The results showed an improvement in all tested parameters (p ≤ 0.05). Therefore, the effectiveness of the protocol in improving football performance in terms of quantity and accuracy is confirmed.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> This study has increased knowledge of the effects of the HIIT protocol on the performance of young football players.</p> 2022-03-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Acute Effects of Small-Sided Games on Hamstring Strength in Young Soccer Players 2022-03-25T21:16:30+02:00 Italo Sannicandro Giacomo Cofano Gaetano Raiola <p><strong>The study purpose.</strong>The Small-side games (SSG) are high intensity drills very popular in soccer training. The knowledge of the acute effects of the exercises that make up the training session is very relevant especially to reduce youth soccer injury risk. This study aim to assessment the acute effects of SSG on hamstring eccentric strength and to know the lower limb strength asymmetries (LLSA) in young soccer players.</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods.</strong> The sample is composed of male young soccer players Under 17 (n = 24, 16.6 ± 0.5 years, 168.8 ± 4.6 cm, 58.2 ± 3.5 kg). Before and after SSG (4vs4, 3×4 min, 3min recovery, no goalkeepers) the hamstring eccentric strength and the lower limb eccentric strength asymmetry were evaluated used a specific dynamometer (N3 Easytech, Italy) and relative software. Every young soccer player performed a single repetition of the Nordic hamstring exercise with dynamometer; after about 2 minutes, instead, they performed 5 repetitions of the same exercise, without interruption. For both assessments, were detected the eccentric strength and the LLSA.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> The hamstring eccentric strength assessment show substantial and statistically significant differences in the assessment in comparison pre-post values. A significant reduction was observed for eccentric strength peak (p &lt; 0.018 and p &lt; 0.014 for right/left limb), for eccentric average strength (p &lt; 0.017 and p &lt; 0.006 for right/left limb). The eccentric peak strength asymmetry value and the average strength asymmetry value revealed a significant increase (p &lt; 0.0001).<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>. The reduction of strength after SSG requires careful consideration of the exercises order in the training session. The practitioners can plan training sessions and apply SSGs more effectively, with more attention to the effects on hamstrings.</p> 2022-03-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Improvement of HOTS Method in Basketball Game Through TGFU Learning 2022-03-25T21:16:30+02:00 Soni Nopembri Cerika Rismayanthi Kukuh Hardopo Putro Agus Kristiyanto Agus Margono Manil Karakauki Kukuh Wahyudin Pratama <p><strong>The study's purpose was</strong> to improve students’ Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) through learning using the Teaching Game For Understanding (TGfU) as a medium. This study uses purposive sampling with the provision of classes that have a low average value of physical education.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p><strong>Materials and methods.</strong> This research is classroom action research (CAR). The sample used in this study consisted of one class totaling 32 students.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> The results of the study were that in the first cycle there were two assessments carried out, namely when playing the first game and the second game. In the first game students got a pretty good score, namely for the average SEI (Skill Execution Index) value of 0.72 from the highest score of 1 with a percentage of 72%, In the second cycle, the treatment given to students was still the same as the treatment in 1st cycle. In the second cycle, this time in the 1st game the average SEI value increased to 0.79 with a percentage of 79% then DMI increased to 0.81 with a percentage of 81% and the SI value increased to 0.81 with a presentation of 81%.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> The learning process using TGfU can improve students’ HOTS skills. Learning TGfU with attacking and defending games, can improve decision making, execution skills, and player support which can be seen from each indicator that is determined to have increased from each cycle carried out by students. Hopefully, this research can be a support for Physical Education to grow more advanced.</p> 2022-03-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Morphofunctional Characteristics of Basketball Players with Different Roles as Selection Criteria at the Stage of Preparation for Higher Achievements 2022-03-25T21:16:30+02:00 Mykola Bezmylov Oksana Shynkaruk Nataliia Byshevets Gan Qi Shao Zhigong <p><strong>Objective.</strong> To study the morphofunctional characteristics of basketball players aged 17-20 years, taking into account their game role, and to substantiate the possibility of using them as criteria for selection and orientation at the stage of preparation for higher achievements.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p><strong>Materials and methods. </strong>The study participants were 200 basketball players (17-20 years old). The following methods were used: theoretical analysis, pedagogical observation, pedagogical experiment with the use of instrumental methods of functional diagnostics (ergometry, chronometry, spirometry, gas analysis, and pulsometry), anthropometric methods, statistical methods.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> The study determined statistically significant differences in height and weight in all playing positions: the point guard is characterized by statistically significantly shorter body height compared to the shooting guard (U&nbsp;=&nbsp;46.5; z = -6.88; p &lt; 0.01), the shooting guard is statistically significantly shorter than the small forward (U&nbsp;=&nbsp;51.0; z&nbsp;=&nbsp;-5.58; p &lt; 0.01), the latter is shorter compared to the power forward (U = 38.0; z = -5.56; p &lt; 0.01). The center was found to be statistically significantly taller than the power forward (U = 82.0; z = 4.24; p &lt; 0.01). The model height indicators of centers at this stage of improvement are 205.9 ± 3.53 cm. Groups of athletes, depending on their roles, statistically significantly differ in body weight (F = 64.304; p &lt; 0.01). Centers are the heaviest and point guards – the lightest basketball players. The dynamics of body height and weight indicators of basketball players from 16 to 20 years were determined.</p> <p>Point guards and shooting guards have a statistically significantly higher level of VO<sub>2max</sub> compared to centers and power forwards. The average level of VO<sub>2max</sub> of players in the point guard position was 57.05 ± 3.78 In centers, this indicator is on average 49.10 ± 4.63 ml<sup>.</sup>kg<sup>-1</sup><sup>.</sup>min<sup>-1</sup>. Centers had the VLC in the range of 9.38 ± 0.76 l, power forwards – 8.72 ± 0.80 l, defensive players – 7.5-8 l. No statistically significant differences were found in players with different roles in the level of AnT as a percentage of VO<sub>2max</sub>.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> Morphological and functional characteristics serve as informative criteria for monitoring the individual condition of players, are dynamic and can be used in different age groups, taking into account the specifics of team training and individual qualities.</p> 2022-03-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Difference of Anthropometric Characteristics Between Elite and Novice Bodybuilders in Thailand 2022-03-25T21:16:30+02:00 Thanatpong Sukwong Potchara Chinnasee Vorramate Prajongjai Chamnan Chinnasee Ali Md Nadzalan Nur Ikhwan Mohamad <p><strong>Research purpose.</strong>&nbsp;This study aims to compare anthropometric characteristics between elite and novice bodybuilders.</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods.</strong>&nbsp;Twenty bodybuilders consisted of 10 elites and 10 novices were recruited. Percent body fat, segmental lean mass, and segmental fat mass were measured by a bioelectrical impedance analysis device. Other measure includes the circumference of body segment and body height.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong>&nbsp;Results of the study indicated that significant differences were found in terms of upper arm (flexed) circumference, upper arm circumference, and chest circumference, with the elite, were bigger than the novice. Elite bodybuilders also had significantly lower body fat percentage, with a better segmental lean mass of the right arm, left arm, and trunk. Interestingly neck, arm, waist, hip, thigh, and calf circumferences were not significantly different between groups. Similar insignificant differences were also found in body mass index, a segmental lean mass of right leg and left leg, a segmental fat mass of left and right arm, trunk, and left and right leg. With regards specifically to the group of bodybuilders that participated in this study, the non-significant differences variables may indicate areas that can be improved in terms of training in both elite and novice. The variables with significant differences may indicate the area that may have been over-emphasized by the elite group, which may also contribute to their better (winning) performance.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong>&nbsp;In a conclusion, the results also correspond well with bodybuilding judging criteria, where one of them such as size (circumference) may be similar, but bodybuilders with lean and well-defined bodies will be in the winning group.</p> 2022-03-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Features of the Canoeists’ Special Physical Fitness at the Distance of 1000 m 2022-03-25T21:16:30+02:00 Pengcheng Guo Ziyang Zhang Zijian Huang Xianglin Kong Andrii Diachenko Olga Rusanova Andrey Rusanov <p><strong>The aim of the study.</strong> To better understanding of the indicators of functional support for special endurance and physiological demands in canoeists at a distance of 1000 m.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p><strong>Material and methods:</strong> 20 athletes (19-23 years) in canoeing from Shandong and Jiangxi provinces.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> According to the results of the analysis, the following typological groups of athletes-canoeists, specializing in the distance of 1000 m, with pronounced differences in the implementation of anaerobic energy supply. Typological groups of athletes had no significant differences in aerobic energy capacity (p &gt; 0.05).<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p>The first typological group (La max 90s &lt;10.08 mmol·l<sup>-1</sup>, p &lt; 0.05) is characterized by: power indicators 4.96&nbsp;±&nbsp;2.35&nbsp;mmol·l<sup>-1</sup> and anaerobic energy supply capacity 6.93 ± 3.16 mmol·l<sup>-1</sup>, which were the lowest among other groups of athletes. Athletes showed significantly low performance in 10-s, 30-s and 90-s tests, and performed less work in the step test, with varying degrees of severity of fatigue compensation mechanisms.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p>The second typological group (La max 90s – 10.08-16.64 mmol·l<sup>-1</sup>, p &lt; 0.05), is characterized by high power 7.4&nbsp;±&nbsp;1.68&nbsp;mmol·l<sup>-1</sup> and low capacity anaerobic energy supply 13.32 ± 1.52 mmol·l<sup>-1</sup>. Athletes performed a sufficient amount of work in the step test (3-4 steps), but performance in the 90-s test was reduced, there were reduced characteristics of the ability to compensate for fatigue.</p> <p>The third typological group (La max 90 c-&gt; 16.64 mmol·l<sup>-1</sup>, p &lt;0.05) is characterized by: power indicators 8.20&nbsp;±&nbsp;2.36&nbsp;mmol·l<sup>-1</sup><span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp; </span>and anaerobic energy supply capacity 17.85 ± 1.05 mmol·l<sup>-1</sup>, which were the highest among other groups of athletes and significantly (p &lt; 0.05) higher performance in 30-s, 90-s tests, and the level of power at which the maximum oxygen consumption in the step test is reached.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p><strong>Conclusion.</strong> The results of the studies indicate differences in the level of functional support for special endurance for paddlers of uniform groups&nbsp;for canoeists that specialize in a distance of 1000 m.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> 2022-03-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Enhancing Strength, Leg Muscle Explosive Power, and Muscle Hypertrophy Using Hurdle-Box Jump Plyometric 2022-03-25T21:16:30+02:00 Dwinda Abi Permana Nining Widyah Kusnanik Nurhasan Nurhasan Hari Setijono Muhammad Zainal Arifin Septyaningrum Putri Purwoto <p><strong>The study purpose</strong> was to examine and analyze the effect of developing a hurdle-box jump plyometric model on muscle strength, explosive power, and&nbsp;hypertrophy.</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods.</strong> This research was an experimental study with a&nbsp;two group pretest-posttest design. The sample in this study was male sub-elite athletes from various sports aged 15-17 years who were selected at random sampling totaling 22 athletes, divided into 2 (two) groups, the treatment group using&nbsp;plyometric hurdle-box jump development&nbsp;(n = 11) and the control group using&nbsp;plyometric barrier hops&nbsp;(n = 11).<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> The results showed that: (1) there was a significant effect of&nbsp;plyometric hurdle-box jump&nbsp;exercise on strength, leg muscle explosive power, and&nbsp;muscle&nbsp;hypertrophy, (2) there was a significant effect of&nbsp;plyometric barrier hops&nbsp;exercise&nbsp;(control group) on strength, leg muscles explosive power, and&nbsp;muscle&nbsp;hypertrophy, and (3) there was a significant difference between&nbsp;plyometric hurdle-box jump&nbsp;exercises and&nbsp;plyometric barrier hops&nbsp;exercises&nbsp;(control group) on strength, leg muscle explosive power, and&nbsp;muscle&nbsp;hypertrophy.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> The percentage increase in&nbsp;pretest&nbsp;and&nbsp;posttest&nbsp;scores on&nbsp;strength, leg muscle explosive power, and&nbsp;muscle&nbsp;hypertrophy&nbsp;showed that the&nbsp;hurdle-box jump plyometric&nbsp;exercise group&nbsp;was better than the control group (barrier hops).</p> 2022-03-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Reactive Stress Tolerance in Preadolescent Sports Participants: A Comparison of Six Individual Non-Contact Sports 2022-03-25T21:53:16+02:00 Manohar Kumar Pahan Mahendra Kumar Singh <p><strong>Purpose of the study.&nbsp;</strong>The study's aim was to examine how reactive stress tolerance differs in preadolescence across six different non-contact sports.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods.&nbsp;</strong>Archery, cycling, shooting, swimming, track &amp; field, and weightlifting are non-contact sports chosen for research. The study included 180 male sports cadets from the Jharkhand State Sports Promotion Society, with an age range of 11–13 years. To assess reactive stress tolerance, the determination test form S1 under the Vienna Test System was used. Sub-variables like the percentile ranks of correct, incorrect, and omitted responses, as well as the score of median reaction time, were selected for study. Comparisons were made between scores of sub-variables under the reactive stress tolerance of six selected sports disciplines. The main effect was determined using the Kruskal-Wallis test, while pairwise post-hoc comparisons were made using the Mann-Whitney U test. The significance level was set at 0.05.</p> <p><strong>Results. </strong>There were no significant differences in percentile rank of correct, incorrect, and median reaction times between selected sports. In terms of percentile rank of incorrect responses, sports like archery, shooting, and weightlifting differ significantly from swimming.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion.&nbsp;</strong>According to the findings, the sports in which distance is covered by producing bodily momentum are less likely to exhibit uncontrollable behaviour during athletic events.</p> 2022-03-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Jump Movement Skills Pattern Among Indonesia Mentally Retarded Children Using D-Mat 2022-03-26T18:58:31+02:00 Dewi Septaliza Achmad Sofyan Hanif Yusmawati Yusmawati <p><strong>The study purpose</strong><strong>. </strong>Currently, the study was to get the pattern of jumping movement skills for mentally retarded children using D-Mat. It is as part of technology advanced to support physical activity and sport. While mentally retarded children have different ways to jump with normal children.</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods.</strong> The method used qualitative research using observational design. Participants are mentally retarded children aged 6-11 years who are divided into two groups, namely ages 6-8 years and ages 9-11 years. The data were collected through a process of observation and video recording. While the validation of the jumping movement test used observational and test-rater from 2 experts for the needs of mentally retarded children. Data analysis techniques used the Kruskal-Wallis test with a significant level of p &lt;0.05 and descriptive statistics.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> The findings concluded that the jumping movement pattern of mentally retarded children aged 6-11 years is forward jumping movement. They are easy to do it using D-Mat. This movement model is quite stable and easy to master.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> Each component of the movement also shows fairly good stability according to the characteristics and needs of each child.</p> 2022-03-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of the Eight-Week Agility Development Program in Elementary School Students 2022-03-25T21:16:30+02:00 Dejan Milenković <p><strong>The research was conducted</strong> in order to determine the effect of an eight-week agility development program (ADP) in elementary school students.</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods.</strong> 107 fifth grade elementary school students from four classes randomly marked as agility development program (ADP) group (n = 55) or control (CON) group (n = 52) took part in the testing. The students had two classes of physical education per week, which is a total of 16 classes in eight weeks. ADP lasting 15 minutes was conducted within the main part of the physical education class. Both groups attended physical education classes, except that the control group had activities without a special agility development program. Two-tailed independent t-test was used to analyze differences in agility between the ADP and the CON and the change in the performance from pre- to posttests between groups. Two-tailed paired t-test was used to analyze changes in agility performance between pre- and posttests within both groups.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> Compared with the CON, the ADP group showed significantly better performances (p≤0.05) in Zig-zag test, Illinois Agility Run test, Agility T test and Arrowhead Agility test after the training period, but not in Balsom agility test (p&gt;0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> The positive effect of the 8-week agility development program (ADP) on improving agility was determined. Therefore it can be concluded that the implemented program for the development of agility can contribute to the improvement of physical performance and various skills needed for the proper development of children.</p> 2022-03-25T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##